Suicide Prevention

Prevention is the umbrella in working toward reducing deaths by suicide; increasing awareness, eliminating stigma, knowing what to do in the event that you or someone you know experiences thoughts or behaviours associated with suicide. It’s having the skills, awareness, before someone is in crisis. In preventing suicide, intervention and postvention are components toward the goal of reducing suicides.

Who is at Risk of Dying by Suicide?

Older adults are at higher risk due to life changes and transitions through loss, lifestyle changes due to physical disability, a move from independent living to assisted living and social isolation and abuse. Warning signs: appetite changes, lack of participation in social events, signs of abuse and neglect.

Young people are at higher risk due to family and school pressures, major life changes, hormone changes, bullying and sexual orientation issues.

Warning signs: eating disorders, deliberate self-harm, withdrawal from normal activities, exceptional and extreme mood swings, perfectionist behaviour or extreme self-critical behaviour

People who have recently had a major loss or life change are at higher risk, as grief can change to depression that may last several weeks or longer.

Warning signs: major changes in attitude, changes in eating or sleeping habits, loss of energy or loss of interest in things that were once enjoyed.

Especially vulnerable are people who are recovering from an episode of depression or who have a history of suicide attempts, or who have just been released from the hospital. [1]

Facts and Stats

Canada

  • There were 3,890 deaths by suicide in Canada (2009). 2,989 were male. 901 were female.
  • Men aged 40-60 had the highest number of suicides In Canada with 1361, followed by males aged 20-39 with 892.
  • Suicide accounts for 24% of all deaths among 15-24 year olds

Alberta

  • In 2009, in Alberta, there were 483 suicidal deaths. 377 were male, 106 were female
  • In 2010, there were 1,833 attempted suicide/self-inflicted injury-related hospital admissions.
  • There were 5,053 attempted suicide/self-inflicted injury-related emergency department visits.
  • Females accounted for 58% of the hospital admissions and 61% of the emergency department visits for attempted suicide/self-inflicted injuries.

Aboriginal Communities

  • Suicide and self-inflicted injuries are the leading causes of death for First Nations youth and adults up to 44 years of age.
  • Approximately 55% of all Aboriginal people are under 25 years of age.
  • The suicide rate for First Nations male youth (age 15-24) is 126 per 100,000 compared to 24 per 100,000 for non-Aboriginal male youth.
  • For First Nations females, the suicide rate is 35 per 100,000 compared to 5 per 100,000 for non-Aboriginal females (Health Canada, 2010).
  • Suicide rates for Inuit youth are among the highest in the world, at 11 times the national average. [2]

What Does It Look Like?

Those who are at risk may show these warning signs of suicide. They may:

  • Making suicidal statements.
  • Being preoccupied with death in conversation, writing, or drawing.
  • Giving away belongings.
  • Withdrawing from friends and family.
  • Having aggressive or hostile behaviour
  • Neglecting personal appearance.
  • Running away from home.
  • Risk-taking behaviour, such as reckless driving or being sexually promiscuous.
  • A change in personality (such as from upbeat to quiet). [3]

RESOURCE

TOOLKIT

VIDEO

References

  1. Mood Disorders of Ontario. Frequently Asked Questions – Suicide. Retrieved from http://www.mooddisorders.ca/faq/suicide
  2. Centre for Suicide Prevention. (2013). Suicide Prevention Primer: Facts and Myths. Retrieved from https://www.suicideinfo.ca/resources/
  3. Health Link BC. (2017). Warning Signs of Suicide. Retrieved from https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/hw29139